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Trends in Technology That Will Affect Your Marketing


Every year, additional technical innovations emerge for entrepreneurs to consider. Those who keep ahead of the curve may even achieve new levels of marketing success. In 2022, we predict small enterprises should capitalize on the following trends:

  • Long-form content

It applies to blog posts, articles, and video and audio content. Sharing knowledge on topics that interest your clients is a great way to boost brand awareness and loyalty. You can gain trust by showing that you care about more than just the sale, according to Richard James Schueler. Ensure a healthy mix between highlighting your items and delivering relevant, actionable advice, whether your material gets provided via social media, a blog, or an email blast.

  • Marketing on social media

Successful organizations’ digital marketing efforts will continue to rely on social media, according to Richard Schueler. Expect video, Instagram, live streaming, and podcasts to top the list in 2022. Facebook isn’t going anywhere; it’s here to stay. LinkedIn will grow in importance as influencers use it to amplify their voices. When it comes to influencers, 2022 will be the year of specialists with fewer but more loyal followers. The niche and those who can control an empty ocean with little to no competition will be ahead of the pack.

  • E-new commerce’s frontiers

Web3, where businesses leverage Defi trends to enhance their profiles to new heights, is at the center of e-commerce trends. Decentralized finance, or “Defi,” refers to the blockchain, cryptocurrencies, and non-fungible tokens (NFTs) – a whole new world of business done over the blockchain with fresh marketing prospects.

There are technologies like the shared P2P ledger to make doing business faster, cheaper, safer, and more transparent. Smart contracts on the blockchain verify, guarantee, and enforce transactions. Of course, cryptocurrency, or digital coins, can be used to replace physical money and appeal to a different type of customer.

  • User encounter

Whether in an e-commerce store or browsing a website, modern shoppers demand an entertaining, user-friendly, and smooth online experience. Expect a stronger push toward a more seamless and engaging UX in 2022 on interactive, enjoyable, convenient, and tailored experiences.

Users enjoy the content that speaks directly to them. We’re focusing on developing a marketing approach that attracts consumers based on their page experience. The perfect UX is not about providing content that draws users in; it’s about speed, visual stability, mobile friendliness, and secure browsing. These methods will boost visibility and engagement in content marketing initiatives.

  • Imagine a world without cookies.

In the previous two years, there have been numerous complaints about data gathering privacy. To address the issue, Google is leading the advertising technology market with its cookieless future, which will launch in 2023. Near the end of 2022, Google will release new technology to promote the phase-down of test cookies. While cookies rely on information provided by the client, such as personal emails, cookie alternatives will need a lot of high-quality first-party data to succeed. How does this affect businesses and marketers? As customer privacy concerns and constraints rise, cookie alternatives replaced cookies shortly.

  • Keywords and SEO

SEO and keyword techniques have maintained their dominance. The Page Experience Algorithm from Google gets set to debut in March 2022. The SEO tool will evaluate, among other things, loading speed, interaction, visual stability, and HTTPS security. Google has also shifted its focus to mobile, launching Mobile-First Indexing (MFI) to rank mobile-friendly websites. That means that marketers should concentrate on the user experience on mobile devices as much as, if not more than, on websites. Meanwhile, Google’s new Multitask Unified Model (MUM) encourages authors to deliver more complicated responses to straightforward questions. MUM recognizes and honors authoritative material.

  • Information from research

Even though most companies respect data analytics, marketers have a long way ahead. Marketers must become more adept at utilizing data. Customers provide businesses with personal information such as purchasing habits, favorite items, and the best ways to reach them through advertising and marketing activities. Customers want something in return for their personal information, whether it’s more personalized marketing or targeted coupons/deals. Machine learning-driven solutions such as augmented analytics, engineering decision analytics, and data visualization will get increasingly used for better decision-making, company management, insights, and automation.

Swimming Coaches Love Swimjourney: Tips For Selecting A Swimming Instructor


You must locate a professional swimming teacher that understands what they are doing, whether you are searching for a swimming instructor for yourself or for your kid. Swimming lessons may equip a pupil with the knowledge and survival skills they need to stay afloat in the water after an accident. Here are some pointers from Swimming coaches love SwimJourney to consider when selecting a teacher for yourself or your kid.

The Very First Thing You Should Do Is Compare Prices

There are a variety of venues where you may find qualified teachers. Whether you are searching for a child’s instructor, ask acquaintances who have children if they can suggest someone to you. This gives you the opportunity to learn firsthand about a certain swimming school and instructor.

Other options, in addition to talking with your social circle, include checking with your local leisure center or any swim clubs that you may be aware of. On a constant basis, such facilities give swimming instruction to people of all ages and abilities. You may easily communicate with instructors and receive the information you want using this easy technique.

When you are looking for various professors, it is vital that you sit down with them and talk with them in order to receive answers to any questions you may have regarding the course or the course material. Check using a range of questions to ensure that you are working with someone you can put your faith in before making a decision. Take a look at their qualifications, which should include whether or not they are a certified swim instructor and how long they have been in the industry. This may aid you in acquiring a better understanding of the kind of expertise they have accumulated throughout the years.

Inquire About The Course Length And The Number Of Sessions Per Week

Of course, your present level of swimming experience will impact how quickly you learn and how much experience you have as a swimmer. However, based on the instructor’s assessment, you should be able to obtain a general notion of how long it will take you to become a natural at the sport.

Another important question to inquire about is the way through which the Swimming coaches love SwimJourney will assess you during your swimming sessions. So, how will they know when you’re ready to go onto the next job or part of the course, is the query. It is necessary to demonstrate that you are a strong enough swimmer before you can go to the next level of instruction.

The cost of attending a school or hiring an instructor is the last consideration when making your decision. The cost of swimming lessons at a swimming school is often less costly than the cost of individual training in the water.

Consider whether or if hiring a private instructor is a good financial investment, and whether or not it would be more beneficial to learn with a group of other pupils. Learning how to play an instrument is not cheap, therefore money is always an issue when it comes to paying for lessons. SwimJourney is the best swimming instructor in Singapore. They offer a wide range of teaching styles and techniques to meet your needs, from group lessons to one-on-one sessions.

Cryptobase ATM: The Safest Place to Exchange Cryptocurrency


There’s no doubt that cryptocurrency is becoming more and more popular every day. In fact, a recent study showed that as many as 22% of Americans believe that cryptocurrency will be the future of money. With numbers like that, it’s no wonder that businesses are starting to accept Bitcoin and other cryptocurrencies as payment; if you’re looking for a safe place to exchange your cryptocurrency, look no further than Cryptobase ATM! We offer the highest security standards in the industry, and our experienced staff is always happy to help you with any questions you may have.

Cryptocurrency is a modern asset designed to work as a medium of exchange. The first cryptocurrency, Bitcoin, was created in 2009. Since then, thousands of other cryptocurrencies have been created. Cryptobase is an innovative new company that has revolutionized the way that people access and use cryptocurrencies. Their most cutting-edge innovation is the cryptobase ATM, a state-of-the-art machine that makes it easier than ever to buy and sell Bitcoin, Ethereum, and other popular digital currencies.

With its easy-to-use interface and robust security features, the cryptobase ATM provides a secure and reliable solution for anyone looking to enter or expand their involvement in the world of cryptocurrency.

Cryptobase ATMs are a valuable tool for crypto traders and investors. Perhaps the biggest benefit of these machines is that they allow users to easily manage their funds by making transactions from a wide range of cryptocurrencies.In addition, cryptobase ATMs often offer a higher degree of security than online platforms, as they employ cutting-edge authentication methods like biometrics to help keep user funds safe.

Furthermore, these machines can typically be accessed 24/7, allowing traders and investors to conduct transactions at any time. Overall, cryptobase ATMs provide an easy, secure, and convenient way for people to manage their cryptocurrency investments.Cryptobase ATM is also a leading provider of cryptocurrency exchange services in the United States. We offer a wide variety of services, including buying, selling, and trading Bitcoin, Ethereum, Litecoin, Bitcoin Cash, and more. We also provide a variety of other services, such as wallet management, coin conversion, and more.

Cryptocurrency is becoming increasingly popular due to its decentralized nature.If you’re looking for a safe and easy way to trade in cryptocurrencies, Cryptobase ATM is the perfect solution for you. Whether you’re a seasoned professional or simply interested in getting started, cryptobase is here to help make your transition into this exciting new space as smooth and seamless as possible. So what are you waiting for? Step up to the cryptobase ATM today and start reaping the benefits of blockchain technology.

CAR-T Therapy for Childhood Cancer Is Now Accessible to Families in Ireland


Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is the most common form of childhood cancer, and it usually appears in children between the ages of 2 and 5 years old. However, it is possible for older children and teens to develop ALL. In fact, every year, roughly 400 teens between the ages of 15 and 19 are diagnosed with ALL. Like other cancers, acute lymphoblastic leukemia can make patients very sick, and its progression, without treatment, is rapid. But for families in Ireland who have been affected by this terrible disease, there’s new hope. And it comes in the form of CAR-T therapy. The life-saving procedure is now available at Children’s Health Ireland at Crumlin in Dublin.

What Is CAR-T Therapy?

During CAR-T cell therapy, doctors harvest healthy T-cells from the patient. T-cells are those white blood cells that are specially designed to fight off infection. Once collected, these cells are genetically modified and a chimeric antigen receptor is added. The modified cells are then re-introduced back into the patient, where they hunt down and kill cancerous cells by blasting them with lethal cytotoxins. The result is usually favorable for the patient who is battling this form of blood cancer.

While research is still taking place into cell therapy strategies, CAR-T for the treatment of blood cancers has proven very optimistic, especially for patients who haven’t responded well to other forms of treatment.

CAR-T Therapy in Ireland

While CAR-T cell therapy has been approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration to fight blood cancers since 2017, the treatment has only recently become available to families in Ireland. Before April of this year, these families had to travel to the UK or farther to access life-saving CAR-T cell therapy for their children.

Who Is a Good Candidate for CAR-T Therapy?

CAR-T therapy is currently reserved for patients with treatment-resistant cancers, who haven’t responded well to chemotherapy and/or medication. For many of these patients, modifying the existing white blood cells to fight the battle inside the body has shown positive results. And now children in Ireland have more opportunity than ever before to take advantage of this life-saving protocol without having to uproot and move to another country during one of the most traumatic times in their lives.

Cell Therapy and Its Relationship to Gene Editing

Cell therapy, at it’s core, involves modifying the body’s most basic elements. And along with gene editing, it holds great promise for individuals who are genetically predisposed to certain diseases, such as cancer, Tay-Sach’s Disease, or down syndrome. While cell therapy has been effective in improving the prognosis for patients with treatment-resistant cancers, gene editing will someday allow doctors to remove long segments of mutated DNA and replace them with healthy segments. The result could be eventual elimination of these disorders altogether.

You can read more about CAR-T cell therapy in the treatment of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia at Cancer Research UK. This includes who is eligible to receive CAR-T treatment in Ireland, where to go for treatment, and what to expect during the treatment period.

How Next Generation Sequencing Is Improving Medical Care For Hard-to-Diagnose Conditions


Some medical conditions, including serious infections of the brain such as encephalitis and meningitis, are difficult to diagnose. In fact, they’re often misdiagnosed. This is because the symptoms so closely mimic other illnesses. Many children have been sent home from the hospital with medication to treat ear infections, when the real culprit was much more sinister. In many situations, this leads to a poorer outcome for the patient because life-saving treatment was not administered in time. Fortunately, mNGS, or metagenomic next generation sequencing could be the solution.

What Is Metagenomic Next Generation Sequencing?

Though it’s a tongue twister to say, metagenomic next generation sequencing is easy to describe. In layman’s terms, it’s a method used by some laboratories to examine a single specimen for many, many contaminants. Generally, mNGS can effectively be performed on multiple types of samples, including:

  • Cerebrospinal fluid
  • Blood
  • Ocular fluid
  • Respiratory fluid
  • Gastric fluid
  • Stool
  • Urine

In these specialized laboratories, a single patient sample can be tested for various microorganisms that cause disease, including parasites, viruses, bacteria, and fungi.

Why Isn’t Every Laboratory Using mNGS?

Unfortunately, mNGS has limitations today. In order for the process to work the way it’s intended, there must be existing, up-to-date databases, or libraries, with which to match the findings. Also, testing is so sensitive that the ways in which specimens are collected sometimes affect the outcomes. There must also be technology capable of interpreting the data. Lastly, this all costs money. In fact, a single mNGS test can cost upwards of $2,000.

What this means is that not every clinical laboratory is set up to perform mNGS. Still, the technique is revolutionary because it eliminates the need for cultures, serology, and other diagnostic methods, and it shortens the time needed to make a diagnosis, which could save a life.

What Are the Other Benefits of mNGS?

The benefits of mNGS are staggering. And once the technology catches up, mNGS will have far-reaching capabilities for many clinical laboratories. These include:

  • Faster diagnosis for immunosuppressed patients with rare disorders
  • Easier diagnosis for patients who can’t tolerate more invasive procedures
  • Speedier and more accurate diagnosis of rare fungal infections
  • More accurate testing with less required fluid sample
  • Earlier detection of novel or emerging viruses

It’s easy for scientists to see where mNGS could lead, but the process is still somewhat in the earlier stages of its development. As a result, it still faces many challenges and suffers from many limitations.

How Could mNGS Benefit Me or My Loved One?

SARS-CoV-2 is a prime example of how mNGS benefits the average citizen. This illness, also known as COVID-19, first manifested as an unusually severe form of pneumonia in a cluster of patients in Wuhan, China. The rate at which it soon encompassed the world was unexpected and devastating. However, the expediency at which the virus was identified and a vaccine developed was largely due to next generation sequencing. Scientists used NGS to rapidly sequence the genetic samples and mNGS to identify the source. It happened like this:

  • Doctors collected biologic samples from patients and submitted them for NGS testing
  • Scientists extracted the DNA and RNA from the samples and purified them.
  • Scientists then used different methods to separate and study the DNA and RNA.
  • Results were compared to known data in genome banks.
  • Suspect organisms were identified.

This is a very simplistic overview of what actually occurred. However, based upon the results, life-saving vaccines were able to be formulated in record time, and many lives were saved. And it was mostly due to mNGS and the scientists who stand behind it.

Things to know when writing a car accident witness statement in LA


A car accident witness statement is an account of the accident you saw. It has perspectives and information from your point of view. 

The witness statement you write will differ from what another witness wrote and from what those involved may have felt. 

Despite it, you should give an honest account of the accident while writing a witness statement. To learn more about witness statements and how to write one, read along! 

Why are witness statements important?

As a witness, you may have explained what you saw to the police, the plaintiff, and many other stakeholders. But you have to describe what you saw in writing. Only the written statement holds in as evidence in the court. 

The witness statement has the power to turn a case over. If you saw what happened and the so-called at-fault party is innocent, you have the moral obligation to let the person find justice through your statement. 

By holding back from giving a witness statement, you are letting a negligent person get away with the crime while an innocent person gets punished.

How to write a witness statement?

There are three important things you have to include in a witness statement. They are:

  1. Your name
  2. Your contact details
  3. Your signature

They have nothing to do with the accident, but your statement will not be credible without them.  

When it comes to explaining the accident, try to cover everything you saw. You can ask yourself questions like:

  1. When did the accident take place?
  2. How many people were involved, and who all were injured?
  3. Who was at fault?
  4. What caused the accident?

By finding answers to similar questions related to the accident, you can write a good witness statement. 

Try to give very specific information like which part of the vehicle got damaged, where all the victims had injuries, etc. 

Please, do not take any information you know regarding the accident lightly. Who knows what will help solve the case quickly!

Concluding thoughts 

As a witness, by giving the witness statement, you are playing a crucial role in the accident claim case. 

You will either help the victim get justice faster or help find who was at fault. So, you should not take the witness statement writing task lightly. 

If you need assistance writing an authentic witness statement, you can consult an attorney. Reputable law firms that specialize in accident cases are always ready to help if you approach them for writing a statement. 

4 Best Medical Practices To Follow After An Accident- Washington


Failing to visit a doctor, dismissing the importance of medical care after an accident, and “minor” symptoms like headaches, muscular pains, or weariness can be detrimental to your health and well-being. Learn about the best medical practices to avail yourself of the attention and treatment you need after an unexpected event in Washington by reading our four expert pieces of advice below.

  • Seek Medical Help Immediately

Even if you don’t feel any pain directly after a collision, many automobile accident injuries, including head injuries, dislocation, torn ligaments, and back injuries, can take hours, days, or perhaps even weeks to manifest symptoms. Immediately after a vehicle accident or as early as you encounter pain or symptoms, consult a doctor for your health and well-being. You can avoid prolonged pain and injury with prompt care and treatment.

  1. Avoid Going To Your Primary Healthcare Physician 

Your doctor has been educated to deal with internal medicine. Hence, they are ill-equipped to recognize and treat severe injuries. Find a professional who can perform the required tests and recommend the necessary treatments. 

Also, keep proper records on the extent of your wounds and their long-term effects. Doctors like those at Integrity Spine and Orthopedics are better trained and certified to assess the severity of your injuries and suggest the best treatment alternatives.

  1. Check Online Review 

Before deciding on a doctor, do some research in your neighborhood. Online reviews and patient comments might assist you in determining the kind of treatment and service you can anticipate. Furthermore, conducting an internet search will reveal what injuries they handle and assist you in locating a skilled physician that is most suited to your needs.

  1. Ask Questions

Don’t be scared to question your doctor. When it comes to your health and safety, you must be your own best champion. A credible doctor will demonstrate that they have the required qualifications and expertise to treat your ailments. Inquire with your doctor about the specific treatment plan they’ve devised for your injury. You should also consider the potential long-term consequences of your injury.

Also, if you’re thinking of pursuing a personal injury lawsuit due to your auto accident, don’t be reluctant to notify your doctor. Inquire with your physician about recording your injuries and care plan appropriately. Medical records may be required in the event of a lawsuit. Make sure you’re getting the utmost care and therapy possible to help you recover completely.

Will eSports Ever Rival Traditional Sports?


These days, kids talk about their favorite gamers and streamers as if they were famous sports stars. Many analyze their ability to perform combinations, emulate their strategies, and aspire to become as good and popular in the video game one day. Based on Statista, the market for eSports has grown in the last few years, and it’s expected to reach two-hundred and eighty-six million enthusiasts by 2024.

While the pay of professional gamers and the industry’s popularity are still in their infancy, it’s growing rapidly. Unlike the more traditional sports like cricket or football, it isn’t rooted in a particular culture or religion, giving it a more global appeal. And as we all know, the ability of a product to reach many is crucial to building its commercial value, and certainly a must for gaming sites like Netbet and streaming services like Netflix and Spotify.


Passion is paving the way

Let’s face it—eSports wouldn’t be as popular as it is today if not for how passionate the community is about their prospective games and players. In other words, it is a phenomenon built entirely around its fanbase. In the past, events were held in small venues with little more than a modest audience and player-base. Nowadays, they fill up stadiums and offer cash prizes that surpass many other sports. For example, the M2 championship had managed to gather millions of viewers.

A gamer’s dream

The phenomenon behind eSports is usually misunderstood. It can be hard to imagine anyone who spends money and time just to watch another person engage in a video game. But the reality is that the same people also attend their preferred team or athlete’s opening day, admiring the participants who perform the best. The thing that sets eSports apart is their level of accessibility to casual and hardcore gamers. Whether or not you play well, it is easy to enjoy watching and living vicariously through the pros.

Another advantage of eSports is that it offers men and women to play against each other on neutral grounds. It means that the industry is the only place where all gender identities can compete against one another.

You can’t have eSports without sports

When mentioning the word sport, the first thing that comes to mind is the physical and mental preparation that competition requires. In this aspect, it’s similar to eSports. To perform at a high level and equally high stakes, players must also train themselves physically and mentally. A lot more goes into how the professionals perform than the uninformed give them credit for, and being physically and mentally healthy is essential to succeed in eSports.

It’s especially true when you consider how incredibly demanding gaming has become, thanks in no small part to new technologies like virtual reality. Because of this, countries like China, Russia, Denmark, and South Korea consider eSports to be a real sport. And it’s only a matter of time until the rest of the world follows in their example.


The eSport industry’s future will eventually lead to the emulation of its traditional counterpart in terms of structure and based on how well it’s doing now, could potentially rival them. With the behavior of the gaming community, omnichannel marketing mediums, and advancing technology, eSports may even get ahead.


Term plan Vs. Money-back plan. Which is better?

Family budget planning abstract concept vector illustration. Best economic decisions, personal budget strategy, family income and expenses management, financial household plan abstract metaphor.

Financial experts normally advise thoroughly analysing your options before making any investments. Because financial needs differ from person to person, financial institutions have devised several investment options to accommodate a wide range of needs.

As investors, we expect our insurance plans to assume the main responsibility for caring for our families while we are away. Furthermore, we are looking for tactics that will offer us returns after a specific amount of time.

If we gain a return on our investment, our happiness has no bounds. This is human nature, and it has led to confusion between a term insurance policy and a money back policy plan. It is vital to recognise the difference between the two.

What is Term Insurance?

A term plan is a pure life insurance policy that protects your loved ones financially in the case of your death. If the policyholder dies while the policy is still in existence, the remaining beneficiaries will get a death benefit. For the term chosen, an insurance seeker is required to make monthly premium payments to their specified insurance provider. The amount of your premium is decided by your age and health at the time you acquire the insurance.

When you buy a term plan online, you may be able to save more money on the premium. Unless you invest in term insurance with a premium return, there is no payout if the policyholder survives the term because it is a pure life insurance product.

What is a Money Back Policy?

A money back policy is an endowment plan type that combines insurance with investing. The policyholder receives a specified sum assured at regular intervals, which is the survival benefit. The final payout is given at the end of the insurance period.

In addition to the survival benefit, the policyholder gets bonuses earned over the policy period, which are also given at the time of the final payout. If the policyholder dies while the policy is still valid, the nominees get a death benefit in addition to the bonuses accumulated throughout the policy period.

Term Plan vs Money Back Policy

Money back policies are life insurance and investment plans in which the life guaranteed receives a portion of the total money at regular intervals rather than a single payment at the end of the term.

Term plans, on the other hand, are pure protection plans that give cash coverage to the life assured and his family in the event of an unexpected incident.

1. Life Cover

One of the most desirable features of term insurance is that it delivers a considerable sum assured for a small premium amount. It is best to buy a term plan online to maximise your discounts. For the same premium charged, the coverage level for a term plan is noticeably more than that of a money back policy.

This implies that if the policyholder dies while the policy is still valid due to an unforeseen occurrence, the term plan will pay the nominees a bigger sum as the death benefit than a Money back policy, which has a substantial downside when it comes to the death benefit.

2. Return on Investment

As previously stated, a term plan is a pure life insurance policy and hence does not provide any return at maturity. This implies that if the policyholder lives to the end of the term, no money is refunded to them or the nominees. Unless a person has chosen term insurance with return of premium policy, in which case the premiums paid are returned to the insurance holder at policy maturity.

However, it is crucial to remember that the rates charged for term insurance with the money-back feature are significantly more than those charged for conventional term insurance. Furthermore, no interest is paid on this money. As a result, instead of choosing term insurance with money back, go for a simple term plan and invest in other wealth-generating products.

A money back policy has an investment component. In a money back policy, if a certain period is met, a specific proportion of the sum insured is paid out as a dividend. In addition, the policyholder is entitled to various incentives collected during their money back policy from time to time.

These cumulative bonuses accumulated over the policy’s lifetime are repaid at the time of the last instalment towards the money back policy. These incentives are also passed to the remaining beneficiaries in the case of the policyholder’s death.

As a result, money back policies provide a higher return on investment than standard term plans. The survival advantages of a money back policy might assist an individual with achieving short-term goals such as supporting a child’s higher education or organizing a family trip.

3. Tax Benefits

Looking for how to save tax in India?

Because both term insurance and money back policies are classified as insurance products, they offer the same tax advantages. Both of these insurance are exempt under Sections 80C and 10(10D) of the Indian Income Tax Act of 1961.

Section 80C allows for a tax exemption of up to 1.5 lakhs on term plan or money back policy premiums. Section 10(10D) exempts insurance policy payments from taxes, whether they are a death benefit, maturity benefit, or survivor benefit.

Section 80D allows for an extra exemption of $25,000 for health insurance-based riders. As a result, if a policyholder chooses riders such as critical illness in addition to their base term plan, they are qualified for the Section 80D exemption.

Wrapping It Up

When deciding between the two, you must consider your aspirations as well as your financial needs. A term insurance policy is a protection policy with no investment component. It will provide financial security for your loved ones if something unfortunate happens to you.

However, if you want to see a return on your investment, you should choose a money-back life insurance policy. In addition to providing insurance coverage, it also serves as an investment vehicle.

Those who have previously satisfied their protection needs and have extra funds might use money back plans to accomplish their long-term financial objectives. When making a selection, keep the goal of the investment in mind.

What Is Dark Matter? The Answer to Universe’s Greatest Mystery Could Be Axions


The saga of how an odd hypothetical particle became a star dark matter candidate.

Physics is permeated by conundrums, and in a sense, that’s what keeps the field going. These mind-bending puzzles foster a race toward truth. But of all the dilemmas, I’d say two of them unquestionably fall under priority A.

First off, when scientists look up at the sky, they consistently see stars and galaxies traveling farther from our planet, and from each other, in every direction. The universe kind of looks like a bubble blowing up, which is how we’ve come to know it’s expanding. But something doesn’t make sense.

Space doesn’t seem to have enough stuff floating around in it — stars, particles, planets and all else — for it to inflate so swiftly. In other words, the universe is expanding way faster than our physics says it can, and it’s even picking up speed as you read this. Which brings us to problem two.

Per experts’ best calculations, galaxies are spinning so incredibly quickly as everything zips around that we’d expect the spirals to behave like out-of-control merry-go-rounds flinging metal horses off the ride. There doesn’t seem to be enough stuff in the universe to anchor them together. Yet the Milky Way isn’t drifting apart.

So… what’s going on?

As blanket terms, physicists call “missing” stuff pushing the cosmos outward dark energy, and pieces holding galaxies together — presumably in a halo-like form — dark matter. Neither interacts with light or matter we can see, so they’re essentially invisible. Combined, dark matter and dark energy make up a whopping 95% of the universe.

Zeroing in on dark matter’s portion, the authors of a recent review, published in the journal Science Advances, write that “it may well consist of one or more types of fundamental particle … although part or all of it might consist of macroscopic lumps of some invisible form of matter, such as black holes.”

Black holes or not, dark matter is totally elusive. In an effort to decode its secrets, scientists have picked a handful of suspects out of the cosmic lineup, and one of the most wanted particles is an odd little speck called the axion.

The wide-eyed hypothesis of axions

You might’ve heard of the Standard Model, which is pretty much the holy grail, ever-strengthening handbook of particle physics. It outlines how every single particle in the universe works.

However, as the Science Advances review points out, some “particle physicists are restless and dissatisfied with the Standard Model because it has many theoretical shortcomings and leaves many pressing experimental questions unanswered.” More specifically for us, it leads right into a paradox regarding a well-established scientific concept dubbed CPT invariance. Aha, the physics puzzles continue.

Basically, CPT invariance states that the universe must be symmetrical when it comes to C (charge), P (parity) and T (time). For that reason, it’s also called CPT symmetry. If everything had the opposite charge, was left-handed instead of right-handed and traveled through time backward instead of forward, it states the universe should remain just the same.

For a long while, CPT symmetry seemed unbreakable. Then 1956 came around.

Long story short, scientists found something that violates the P part of CPT symmetry. It’s called the weak force, and it dictates things like neutrino collisions and element fusion in the sun. Everyone was shocked, confused and scared.

Nearly every foundational concept of physics relies on CPT symmetry.

About a decade later, researchers discovered the weak force violating C symmetry, too. Things were falling apart. Physicists could just hope and pray that even if P is violated… and CP is violated… maybe CPT still isn’t. Maybe weak forces just need the trio to uphold CPT symmetry. Thankfully, this theory seems correct. For some unknown reason, the weak force follows total CPT symmetry despite C and CP blips. Phew.

But here’s the issue. If weak forces violate CP symmetry, you’d expect strong forces to as well, right? Well, they don’t, and physicists don’t know why. This is called the strong CP problem — and precisely where things get interesting.

Neutrons — uncharged particles within atoms — abide by the strong force. Plus, allowing for simplification, their neutral charge means they violate T symmetry. And “if we find something that violates T symmetry, then it must also violate CP symmetry in such a way that the combination CPT is not violated,” the paper states. But… that’s weird. Neutrons don’t because of the strong CP problem.

And so the idea of the axion was born.

Years ago, physicists Roberto Peccei and Helen Quinn suggested adding a new dimension to the Standard Model. It involved a field of ultralight particles — axions — that explained the strong CP problem, thereby relaxing the conditions for neutrons. Axions appeared to fix everything so well that the duo’s idea became the “most popular solution to the strong CP problem,” the paper states. It was a miracle.

To be clear, axions are still hypothetical, but think about what just happened. Physicists added a new particle to the Standard Model, which outlines specks of the entire universe. What might that mean for everything else?

The key to dark matter?

Per the Peccei-Quinn theory, axions would be “cold,” or very slowly moving through space. And… the study researchers say “the existence of [dark matter] is inferred from its gravitational effects, and astrophysical observations suggest that it is ‘cold.'”

The paper also states, “there are experimental upper limits on how strongly [the axion] interacts with the visible matter.”

So, basically, axions that help explain the strong CP problem also seem to have theoretical properties that align with those of dark matter. Extremely well.

The European Council for Nuclear Research, better known as CERN, which runs the Large Hadron Collider and is leading the charge for antimatter studies, also underlines “one of the most suggestive properties of axions is that, in a natural way, they could be produced in huge numbers soon after the Big Bang. This population of axions would still be present today and could compose the dark matter of the universe.”

There you go. Axions are among the hottest topic in physics because they seem to explain so much. But once again, those sought-after bits are still hypothetical.

Will we ever find axions?

It’s been 40 years since scientists began hunting for axions.

Most of these searches are “mainly exploiting the action field interaction with the electromagnetic fields,” say the authors in that recent review published in Science Advances.

For instance, CERN developed the Axion Search Telescope, a machine built to find a hint of the particles produced in the sun’s core. Inside our star, there are strong electric fields that could potentially interact with axions — if they’re really there, that is.

But the quest has so far faced a few pretty big challenges. For one, “the particle mass is not theoretically predictable,” the authors write — that is, we have very little idea of what an axion might look like.


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